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Formula E

The project brief

The brief

WAE was tasked with supplying the entire Formula E grid with batteries to power the first electric single-seater championship from 2014 to 2018 (Seasons 1-4). WAE has recently committed to designing and manufacturing the Gen 3 Formula E battery starting from 2023 onwards.

The work

WAE designed, tested, and manufactured the Gen 1 battery in just under 12 months. CFD simulations to measure cooling, pressure drops and mass flow distribution of cooling fluids among the modules. 1D Simulation work for multiple run cycles to simulate on-track battery behaviour with varying scenarios to predict cell temperatures. Cell spacing validation studies to ensure that the cells would not overheat during events. Battery design with the most promising cooling capabilities and performance was chosen. Total of 57 batteries were manufactured over four seasons.

The outcome

Signature reliability

99.8% reliability out of 440 starts during the first four Formula E season


200 kW Peak Power
28 kWh Lithium-ion cells

Rapid end-to-end development

12-month development time from start to finish

Manufacturing the future

60 batteries manufactured, supplying the entire Formula E grid for four seasons

Case studies

Thales Biological Surveillance Collector System
Thales Biological Surveillance Collector System

Using expertise in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as well as testing in one of Williams’ two wind tunnels, WAE was responsible ... Find out more

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BAE Systems Hawk

Working in collaboration with BAE Systems, Williams Advanced Engineering has unveiled a revolutionary cockpit simulator that will be ... Find out more

General Dynamics Scout SV-Core Infrastructure Distribution System
General Dynamics Scout SV-Core Infrastructure Distribution System

Williams Advanced Engineering were engaged to support a significant UK MoD armoured vehicle production programme. Find out more

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